Device for 2D Oxygen Imaging

Detector Unit DU01

The Detector Unit DU01 is an imaging technology allowing easy 2D visualization of oxygen distributions in e. g. living, heterogeneous samples. The handheld digital camera records pixel by pixel sensor responses, capturing information of a whole array of sensor points. With VisiSens™ spatial and temporal changes of oxygen can be monitored. The software allows controlling the image recording process, and assists image processing and evaluation. An easy to use camera controlling user interface manages image acquisition and storage. Measurements which belong together can be organized in user defined sessions as separate folders and annotated with a free text comment. Acquired images can be single images or automatically recorded time series.

  • Read-out of O2 sensor foils
  • More than 100,000 measurement points within one recorded image
  • USB-powered portable microscope detector unit
  • Small to medium size field of view (4.6 mm² to 13.5 cm²)
  • Image processing and evaluation software included
  • Visualize spatial and temporal gradients
  • Time-lapse analyte movies


O2, pH and CO2 Mapping in Sediments

O2, pH, and CO2 are key factors for microbial activity and various geochemical processes in sediments. They highly vary locally, e.g. at interfaces or different depths. Spatial and temporal analyte dynamics over long time periods can be visualized. Various regions can be compared within one measurement. VisiSens enables non-invasive 2D-mapping over cross-sections or on sample surfaces. The portable device can be used in lab and field.

Spatial and Temporal Analyte Changes in Plants & Soil

O2, pH and CO2 play a crucial role in plant and soil processes, e. g. in photosynthesis, respiration, in rhizospheres or in microbiological processes. Metabolic processes can be monitored. This planar optical sensor technique allows non-invasive read-out through glass walls of rhizotrons. Studying metabolic activity of roots and determining the cultivation optimum is important for sustainable agriculture, e. g. for adjustment of water and fertilizer supply.

O2 or pH in Cell Culture and Engineered Tissue

Cellular metabolism critically depends on local O2 supply and pH values. Especially in 2D and 3D cell culture or engineered tissue, cells located in diffusion limited regions (e.g. in scaffolds or spheroids) can be subject to low oxygen levels and pH changes. Non-invasive, continuous 2D-mapping can be performed directly in the incubator under growth conditions. Furthermore, 2D analyte distributions in living samples can be visualized.

Non-invasive 2D Analyte Mapping in Microfluidics

VisiSens™ enables 2D visualization of important culture parameters inside microfluidic chips. You can continuously monitor in 2D, with high resolution at specific positions or over the whole chip surface in a non-contact readout mode. Detect metabolic hotspots, record time-series, and monitor hypoxia, cellular growth, or O2 supply inside the chip. You can gain new insights on metabolic activity and natural or artificially produced gradients.


Camera chipEnhanced color (CMOS)
Image resolution1.3 megapixel (1,280 x 1,024 pixels)
Magnification10-fold up to 220-fold, depending on adapter tubus used
Field of view ∼ 1.6 x 1.3 mm2 to ∼ 3.6 x 3.0 cm2; typically ∼ 1.2 x 1.0 cm2
Output15 fps live video preview (no storage) and 0.5 fps full-resolution picture storage (.png)
InterfaceUSB 2.0, high speed USB transmission
Number of LEDs8
MaterialAll-aluminum housing
DimensionsLength 10 cm, diameter 3.8 cm
Weight170 g (without adapter tubus)

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Adhesive Cell Growth and Microscopy on O2 and pH Sensor FoilsCellular Oxygen Consumption in Microfluidic DevicesRole of Oak Wood Ellagitannins on the Oxygen Transfer Rate in Wine BarrelsBenthic Disturbance-Recovery Dynamics in a Changing Coastal OceanImmobilized Plant Cells - From DSMZ to the CustomerDiffusive / Dispersive Reaction Fronts in GroundwaterExchange of O2 and CO2 in the Capillary Fringe of a Porous MediumMonitoring Oxygen in a Mouse Model of Renovascular HypertensionMeasuring Respiration and Primary Production Dynamics in MacroalgaeAssessment of Oxygen Depletion and Biofilm Structure Grown in MBBR CarriersMeasuring Oxygen Gradients above a Respiratory Active Algal Cell LayerViability of Lithobiontic Microorganisms Inhabiting the Rocks of Atacama DesertOxygen Dynamics in the Capillary FringeMonitoring Skin Tissue Oxygenation in MiceRecording Spatial Patterns of Oxygen Consumption in Individual CoralsEffect of Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobin Expression on Oxygen Content in RootsEffect of Pseudomonas Infection on Oxygen Status of Arabidopsis LeavesIntegration of Oxygen Sensor Foils in Microfluidic ChipsO2, CO2 and pH Dynamics in the Capillary FringeImaging the Oxygen Consumption of Microbial CulturesMonitoring pO2 in Cell Culture to Improve Directed DifferentiationOxygen Dynamics around Buried Tar Balls in Florida Marine SandsAssessing Biocide Actions on Lichen with VisiSensPerfusion Monitoring in Microvascular FlapsExtracorporeal Membrane Oxygenator to Support Diseased LungsHypoxic Physiological Environments in a Gas-Regulated Microfluidic DeviceRedox regulation of EGFR steers migration of hypoxic mammary cells towards oxygenOxygen transport in periodically ventilated polychaete burrows2D visualization captures the local heterogeneity of oxidative metabolism across soils from diverse land-useHigh Resolution Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Changes in O2 Concentration in Root-Pathogen InteractionOxygen-distribution within 3-D collagen I hydrogels for bone tissue engineeringA microfluidic oxygen sink to create a targeted cellular hypoxic microenvironment under ambient atmospheric conditionsSpatial organization of bacterial populations in response to oxygen and carbon counter-gradients in pore networksLinking biofilm spatial structure to real-time microscopic oxygen decay imagingAnoxic microsites in upland soils dominantly controlled by clay contentAn experimental-numerical investigation on the effects of macroporous scaffold geometry on cell culture parametersWho really matters: Influence of German Bight key bioturbators on biogeochemical cycling and sediment turnoverOxygen Mapping: Probing a Novel Seeding Strategy for Bone Tissue EngineeringEffects of light fractionation and different fluence rates on photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid in vivoTranscutaneous pO2 imaging during tourniquet-induced forearm ischemia using planar optical oxygen sensorsDetermination of Oxygen Gradients in Engineered Tissue Using a Fluorescent SensorMulti-ion imaging using fluorescent sensors in a microtiterplate array formatFluorescence Detection and Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer at an Early StageFluorescent Imaging of pH with Optical Sensors Using Time Domain Dual Lifetime ReferencingLuminescence Lifetime Temperature Sensing Based on Sol-Gels and Poly(acrylonitrile)s Dyed with Ruthenium Metal-Ligand ComplexesSimultaneous Imaging of Cortical Partial Oxygen Pressure and Anatomic Structures Using a Transparent Optical Sensor FoilTranscutaneous pO2 measurement during tourniquet-induced venous occlusion using dynamic phosphorescence imagingA new semi-invasive method for two dimensional pO2 measurements of cortical structuresNon-invasive measurement of the superficial cortical oxygen partial pressureRadial oxygen gradients over rat cortex arteriolesPlanar Oxygen Sensors for Non Invasive Imaging in Experimental BiologyVisualisation of Cortical pO2 During an Epidural Mass Lesion in RodentsSimple, fast and reliable perfusion monitoring of microvascular flapsAn imaging method for oxygen distribution, respiration and photosynthesis at a microscopic level of resolutionCharacterization of a chip-based bioreactor for three-dimensional cell cultivation via magnetic resonance imagingRatiometric luminescence 2D in vivo imaging and monitoring of mouse skin oxygenationReal-Time 2D Visualization of Metabolic Activities in Zebrafish Embryos Using a Microfluidic TechnologyLow-oxygen tensions found in Salmonella-infected gut tissue boost Salmonella replication in macrophages by impairing antimicrobial activity and augmenting Salmonella virulenceOnline Monitoring of Crude Oil Biodegradation at Elevated PressuresEffect of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor R115777 on Mitochondria of Plasmodium falciparumOxygen measurement in interstitially perfused cellularized constructs cultured in a miniaturized bioreactor

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