Oxygen Sensor Foil for Imaging Sample Surfaces or Through Transparent Vessel Walls

Oxygen Sensor Foil SF-RPSu4

The SF-RPSu4 for measuring oxygen allows non-invasive mapping of metabolic activities as well as changes over time periods from seconds to months. The fluorescent sensor foil is attached on a living or dead sample surface or a transparent glass or disposable vessel. A sensor film on the foil translates the oxygen content into a light signal. The sensor foil is
available in different sizes and can easily be cut in any desired shape. Read-out is done contactless with the imaging Detector Unit DU01 or the VisiSens TD.

  • 2D read-out
  • Contactless, direct sensing or through transparent walls
  • Visualize spatial and temporal gradients
  • Numerous measurement points in one image
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Detection of Microorganisms on Surfaces via O2 Imaging

Microorganisms which are responsible for nosocomial infections are known to be aeorbs or facultative anaerobs. This means that they consume oxygen due to their energy metabolism processes. In recent scientific studies, the VisiSens system has proofed to be able to monitor the very low oxygen consumption of microorganisms in 2D by sealing them between abiotical surfaces (e.g. desk) and the sensor foil. As a result, the presence of microorganism could be monitored in place within minutes.

O2, pH and CO2 Mapping in Sediments

O2, pH, and CO2 are key factors for microbial activity and various geochemical processes in sediments. They highly vary locally, e.g. at interfaces or different depths. Spatial and temporal analyte dynamics over long time periods can be visualized. Various regions can be compared within one measurement. VisiSens enables non-invasive 2D-mapping over cross-sections or on sample surfaces. The portable device can be used in lab and field.

Spatial and Temporal Analyte Changes in Plants & Soil

O2, pH and CO2 play a crucial role in plant and soil processes, e. g. in photosynthesis, respiration, in rhizospheres or in microbiological processes. Metabolic processes can be monitored. This planar optical sensor technique allows non-invasive read-out through glass walls of rhizotrons. Studying metabolic activity of roots and determining the cultivation optimum is important for sustainable agriculture, e. g. for adjustment of water and fertilizer supply.

O2 or pH in Cell Culture and Engineered Tissue

Cellular metabolism critically depends on local O2 supply and pH values. Especially in 2D and 3D cell culture or engineered tissue, cells located in diffusion limited regions (e.g. in scaffolds or spheroids) can be subject to low oxygen levels and pH changes. Non-invasive, continuous 2D-mapping can be performed directly in the incubator under growth conditions. Furthermore, 2D analyte distributions in living samples can be visualized.

Non-invasive 2D Analyte Mapping in Microfluidics

VisiSens™ enables 2D visualization of important culture parameters inside microfluidic chips. You can continuously monitor in 2D, with high resolution at specific positions or over the whole chip surface in a non-contact readout mode. Detect metabolic hotspots, record time-series, and monitor hypoxia, cellular growth, or O2 supply inside the chip. You can gain new insights on metabolic activity and natural or artificially produced gradients.


*typical data which may strongly differ with adapting the imaging set-up to specific needs
**typical data of LOD of a defined ROI (> 6,000 pixels) over time at + 20 °C, excluded ambient light, FoV 8 cm x 6 cm, VisiSens DU01 strongly differs
***typical data of precision of a defined ROI (> 6,000 pixels) over time at + 20 °C, excluded ambient light, FoV 8 cm x 6 cm, VisiSens DU01 strongly differs
**** typical data of spatial standard deviation in defined ROI (> 6,000 pixels) at + 20 °C, excluded ambient light, FoV 8 cm x 6 cm, VisiSens DU01 strongly differs
#VisiSens™ is no approved medical device
Measurement range 0 – 100 % air saturation(0 – 20.9 % O2)
Response time* (t90) Gas phase: < 8 sec.         Dissolved: < 30 sec.
Specifications using VisiSens TD read-out  
Limit of detection** 0.03 % air saturation
Precision (temporal)*** ± 0.02 % air saturation at 0 % air saturation
± 0.1 % air saturation at 100 % air saturation
Precision (spatial)**** ± 1.5 % air saturation at 0 % air saturation
± 3.0 % air saturation at 100 % air saturation
General sensor temperature working range from + 5 to + 45 °C
Compatibility Aqueous solutions, ethanol (max. 10 % v/v), methanol (max. 10 % v/v), pH 2 - 10
Size of sensor foil Standard 40 x 40 mm²
Min. 5 x 5 mm²

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O2-sensitive Microcavity Arrays for 3D Cell Culture Monitoring In situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Oxygen Consumption Within Live 3D Cancer Spheroids How Much O2 Do Cells Really Face? Spatio-temporal O2 Gradients in the Microenvironment of an Outgrowing Cell Patch Oxygen Consumption Rates of Adherent MDCK II Monolayer Cells Monitoring Oxygenation in Microfluidic Cell Culture Using 2D Sensor Foils as Growth Substrate (full text) Adhesive Cell Growth and Microscopy on O2 and pH Sensor Foils Imaging of pH and pO2 on Irradiated Fibroblasts and Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells Cellular Oxygen Consumption in Microfluidic Devices Role of Oak Wood Ellagitannins on the Oxygen Transfer Rate in Wine Barrels Benthic Disturbance-Recovery Dynamics in a Changing Coastal Ocean Immobilized Plant Cells - From DSMZ to the Customer Diffusive / Dispersive Reaction Fronts in Groundwater Exchange of O2 and CO2 in the Capillary Fringe of a Porous Medium Monitoring Oxygen in a Mouse Model of Renovascular Hypertension Measuring Respiration and Primary Production Dynamics in Macroalgae Assessment of Oxygen Depletion and Biofilm Structure Grown in MBBR Carriers Measuring Oxygen Gradients above a Respiratory Active Algal Cell Layer Viability of Lithobiontic Microorganisms Inhabiting the Rocks of Atacama Desert Oxygen Dynamics in the Capillary Fringe Monitoring Skin Tissue Oxygenation in Mice Recording Spatial Patterns of Oxygen Consumption in Individual Corals Effect of Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobin Expression on Oxygen Content in Roots Effect of Pseudomonas Infection on Oxygen Status of Arabidopsis Leaves Integration of Oxygen Sensor Foils in Microfluidic Chips O2, CO2 and pH Dynamics in the Capillary Fringe Imaging the Oxygen Consumption of Microbial Cultures Monitoring pO2 in Cell Culture to Improve Directed Differentiation Oxygen Dynamics around Buried Tar Balls in Florida Marine Sands Assessing Biocide Actions on Lichen with VisiSens Perfusion Monitoring in Microvascular Flaps Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenator to Support Diseased Lungs Quantification of oxygen consumption in head and neck cancer using fluorescent sensor foil technology O2-sensitive microcavity arrays: A new platform for oxygen measurements in 3D cell cultures Physiological oxygen measurements in vitro – Schrödinger´s cat in 3D cell biology O2-sensitive Mikrokavitätenarrays: 3D-Zellkultursystem mit Sensorfunktion Plant-Mediated Rhizosphere Oxygenation in the Native Invasive Salt Marsh Grass Elymus athericus A New Non-invasive Technique for Measuring 3D-Oxygen Gradients in Wells During Mammalian Cell Culture Mapping the biological activities of filamentous oxygenic photogranules In situ observation of pH change during water splitting in neutral pH conditions: impact of natural convection driven by buoyancy effects A Microfluidic Chip Architecture Enabling a Hypoxic Microenvironment and Nitric Oxide Delivery in Cell Culture Impact of Bed Form Celerity on Oxygen Dynamics in the Hyporheic Zone The effect of unsteady streamflow and stream-groundwater interactions on oxygen consumption in a sandy streambed A novel approach to investigate hypoxic microenvironment during rice colonization by Magnaporthe oryzae Microfluidic Patterned Model of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Application to Disease Progression and Zonation Scalable Microfluidic Platform for Flexible Configuration of and Experiments with Microtissue Multiorgan Models Iron Lung: How Rice Roots Induce Iron Redox Changes in the Rhizosphere and Create Niches for Microaerophilic Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacteria More than Meets the Dye: Evaluating Preferential Flow Paths as Microbial Hotspots Elevated micro-topography boosts growth rates in Salicornia procumbens by amplifying a tidally-driven oxygen pump: implications for natural recruitment and restoration Imaging of pH and pO2 gives insight in molecular processes of irradiated cells Experimental study on the oxygenation efficiency of nano-bubble modified mineral particles at the sediment-water interface in lakes Successful control of phosphorus release from sediments using oxygen nano-bubble-modified minerals Hypoxic Physiological Environments in a Gas-Regulated Microfluidic Device Redox regulation of EGFR steers migration of hypoxic mammary cells towards oxygen Dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide in rhizospheres of Lobelia dortmanna - a planar optode study of belowground gas exchange between plants and sediment Oxygen transport in periodically ventilated polychaete burrows 2D visualization captures the local heterogeneity of oxidative metabolism across soils from diverse land-use High Resolution Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Changes in O2 Concentration in Root-Pathogen Interaction Oxygen-distribution within 3-D collagen I hydrogels for bone tissue engineering A microfluidic oxygen sink to create a targeted cellular hypoxic microenvironment under ambient atmospheric conditions Plant-Sediment Interactions in Salt Marshes - An Optode Imaging Study of O2, pH, and CO2 Gradients in the Rhizosphere Spatial organization of bacterial populations in response to oxygen and carbon counter-gradients in pore networks Linking biofilm spatial structure to real-time microscopic oxygen decay imaging Anoxic microsites in upland soils dominantly controlled by clay content An experimental-numerical investigation on the effects of macroporous scaffold geometry on cell culture parameters Who really matters: Influence of German Bight key bioturbators on biogeochemical cycling and sediment turnover Oxygen Mapping: Probing a Novel Seeding Strategy for Bone Tissue Engineering Wurzelexsudation in der Wasserfluktuationszone des Drei-Schluchten-Reservoirs, VR China. Ein Ansatz für Einblicke in eine überflutungsgestresste Rhizosphäre am Beispiel von Salix variegata Franch Effects of light fractionation and different fluence rates on photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid in vivo Transcutaneous pO2 imaging during tourniquet-induced forearm ischemia using planar optical oxygen sensors Determination of Oxygen Gradients in Engineered Tissue Using a Fluorescent Sensor Multi-ion imaging using fluorescent sensors in a microtiterplate array format Fluorescence Detection and Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer at an Early Stage Fluorescent Imaging of pH with Optical Sensors Using Time Domain Dual Lifetime Referencing Luminescence Lifetime Imaging of Oxygen, pH, and Carbon Dioxide Distribution Using Optical Sensors Luminescence Lifetime Temperature Sensing Based on Sol-Gels and Poly(acrylonitrile)s Dyed with Ruthenium Metal-Ligand Complexes Simultaneous Imaging of Cortical Partial Oxygen Pressure and Anatomic Structures Using a Transparent Optical Sensor Foil Transcutaneous pO2 measurement during tourniquet-induced venous occlusion using dynamic phosphorescence imaging A new semi-invasive method for two dimensional pO2 measurements of cortical structures Non-invasive measurement of the superficial cortical oxygen partial pressure Radial oxygen gradients over rat cortex arterioles Planar Oxygen Sensors for Non Invasive Imaging in Experimental Biology Visualisation of Cortical pO2 During an Epidural Mass Lesion in Rodents Simple, fast and reliable perfusion monitoring of microvascular flaps An imaging method for oxygen distribution, respiration and photosynthesis at a microscopic level of resolution Characterization of a chip-based bioreactor for three-dimensional cell cultivation via magnetic resonance imaging Ratiometric luminescence 2D in vivo imaging and monitoring of mouse skin oxygenation Real-Time 2D Visualization of Metabolic Activities in Zebrafish Embryos Using a Microfluidic Technology Low-oxygen tensions found in Salmonella-infected gut tissue boost Salmonella replication in macrophages by impairing antimicrobial activity and augmenting Salmonella virulence Online Monitoring of Crude Oil Biodegradation at Elevated Pressures Effect of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor R115777 on Mitochondria of Plasmodium falciparum Ultrasonic welding of chemical optical sensors supporting O2, pH and CO2 imaging in microfluidic systems Oxygen measurement in interstitially perfused cellularized constructs cultured in a miniaturized bioreactor


O2 Sensor Foil SF-RPSu4
Detector Units DU01 / DU02 / DU03
VisiSens AnalytiCal 1


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